118TH CONGRESS

1st Session

H.R. 409

_______________________________________________________________________

 

IN THE UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

 

January 9, 2023

Sponsored By: Rep. Ian A. Medina (D-FL)

__________________________________________________________________________

 

AN ACT

 

To amend the REAL ID Act of 2005 by creating digital ID cards, digital digital driver's licenses, digital social security cards and digital passports to eradicate fraud, ensure all Americans have valid and readily obtainable identification cards if asked for by a government official. This Act is also enacted for environmental purposes establishing sustainability in the dissemination of identification documents by the United States in reducing printed identification documents at the federal level and state level. See Pub.L. 109-13, 119 Stat. 302, codified as 8 U.S.C. § 1101, et. seq. 

 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

 

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

 

    This Act amends the REAL ID Act of 2005 and may be cited as the ``Digital REAL ID Act of 2023.”

 

TITLE I--AMENDMENTS TO FEDERAL LAWS TO PROTECT AGAINST TERRORIST ENTRY

 

SEC. 100. LEGISLATIVE AUTHORITY.

 

This legislative action is being taken pursuant to the delegation of police power

conferred in the Tenth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States and the

Commerce Clause of the Constitution of the United States of America. U.S. Const.

amend. X; art. I, § 8, c. 3 (2023). 

 

SEC. 101. PREVENTING TERRORISTS FROM OBTAINING RELIEF FROM REMOVAL.

 

    (a) Conditions for Granting Asylum.--Section 208(b)(1) of the 

Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1158(b)(1)) is amended--

            (1) by striking ``The Attorney General'' the first place 

        such term appears and inserting the following:

                    ``(A) Eligibility.--The Secretary of Homeland 

                Security or the Attorney General'';

            (2) by striking ``the Attorney General'' the second and 

        third places such term appears and inserting ``the Secretary of 

        Homeland Security or the Attorney General''; and

            (3) by adding at the end the following:

                    ``(B) Burden of proof.--

                            ``(i) In general.--The burden of proof is 

                        on the applicant to establish that the 

                        applicant is a refugee, within the meaning of 

                        section 101(a)(42)(A). To establish that the 

                        applicant is a refugee within the meaning of 

                        such section, the applicant must establish that 

                        race, religion, nationality, membership in a 

                        particular social group, or political opinion 

                        was or will be a central reason for persecuting 

                        the applicant.

                            ``(ii) Sustaining burden.--The testimony of 

                        the applicant may be sufficient to sustain the 

                        applicant's burden without corroboration, but 

                        only if the applicant satisfies the trier of 

                        fact that the applicant's testimony is 

                        credible, is persuasive, and refers to specific 

                        facts sufficient to demonstrate that the 

                        applicant is a refugee. In determining whether 

                        the applicant has met the applicant's burden, 

                        the trier of fact may weigh the credible 

                        testimony along with other evidence of record. 

                        Where the trier of fact determines, in the 

                        trier of fact's discretion, that the applicant 

                        should provide evidence which corroborates 

                        otherwise credible testimony, such evidence 

                        must be provided unless the applicant does not 

                        have the evidence and cannot reasonably obtain 

                        the evidence without departing the United 

                        States. The inability to obtain corroborating 

                        evidence does not excuse the applicant from 

                        meeting the applicant's burden of proof.

                            ``(iii) Credibility determination.--The 

                        trier of fact should consider all relevant 

                        factors and may, in the trier of fact's 

                        discretion, base the trier of fact's 

                        credibility determination on any such factor, 

                        including the demeanor, candor, or 

                        responsiveness of the applicant or witness, the 

                        inherent plausibility of the applicant's or 

                        witness's account, the consistency between the 

                        applicant's or witness's written and oral 

                        statements (whenever made and whether or not 

                        made under oath), the internal consistency of 

                        each such statement, the consistency of such 

                        statements with other evidence of record 

                        (including the reports of the Department of 

                        State on country conditions), and any 

                        inaccuracies or falsehoods in such statements, 

                        without regard to whether an inconsistency, 

                        inaccuracy, or falsehood goes to the heart of 

                        the applicant's claim. There is no presumption 

                        of credibility.''.

    (b) Withholding of Removal.--Section 241(b)(3) of the Immigration 

and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1231(b)(3)) is amended by adding at the 

end the following:

                    ``(C) Sustaining burden of proof; credibility 

                determinations.--In determining whether an alien has 

                demonstrated that the alien's life or freedom would be 

                threatened for a reason described in subparagraph (A), 

                the trier of fact shall determine whether the alien has 

                sustained the alien's burden of proof, and shall make 

                credibility determinations, in the manner described in 

                clauses (ii) and (iii) of section 208(b)(1)(B).''.

    (c) Other Requests for Relief From Removal.--Section 240(c) of the 

Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1230(c)) is amended--

            (1) by redesignating paragraphs (4), (5), and (6) as 

        paragraphs (5), (6), and (7), respectively; and

            (2) by inserting after paragraph (3) the following:

            ``(4) Applications for relief from removal.--

                    ``(A) In general.--An alien applying for relief or 

                protection from removal has the burden of proof to 

                establish that the alien--

                            ``(i) satisfies the applicable eligibility 

                        requirements; and

                            ``(ii) with respect to any form of relief 

                        that is granted in the exercise of discretion, 

                        that the alien merits a favorable exercise of 

                        discretion.

                    ``(B) Sustaining burden.--The applicant must comply 

                with the applicable requirements to submit information 

                or documentation in support of the applicant's 

                application for relief or protection as provided by law 

                or by regulation or in the instructions for the 

                application form. In evaluating the testimony of the 

                applicant or other witness in support of the 

                application, the immigration judge will determine 

                whether or not the testimony is credible, is 

                persuasive, and refers to specific facts sufficient to 

                demonstrate that the applicant has satisfied the 

                applicant's burden of proof. In determining whether the 

                applicant has met such burden, the immigration judge 

                shall weigh the credible testimony along with other 

                evidence of record. Where the immigration judge 

                determines in the judge's discretion that the applicant 

                should provide evidence which corroborates otherwise 

                credible testimony, such evidence must be provided 

                unless the applicant demonstrates that the applicant 

                does not have the evidence and cannot reasonably obtain 

                the evidence without departing from the United States. 

                The inability to obtain corroborating evidence does not 

                excuse the applicant from meeting the burden of proof.

                    ``(C) Credibility determination.--The immigration 

                judge should consider all relevant factors and may, in 

                the judge's discretion, base the judge's credibility 

                determination on any such factor, including the 

                demeanor, candor, or responsiveness of the applicant or 

                witness, the inherent plausibility of the applicant's 

                or witness's account, the consistency between the 

                applicant's or witness's written and oral statements 

                (whenever made and whether or not made under oath), the 

                internal consistency of each such statement, the 

                consistency of such statements with other evidence of 

                record (including the reports of the Department of 

                State on country conditions), and any inaccuracies or 

                falsehoods in such statements, without regard to 

                whether an inconsistency, inaccuracy, or falsehood goes 

                to the heart of the applicant's claim. There is no 

                presumption of credibility.''.

    (d) Standard of Review for Orders of Removal.--Section 242(b)(4) of 

the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1252(b)(4)) is amended by 

adding at the end, after subparagraph (D), the following: ``No court 

shall reverse a determination made by a trier of fact with respect to 

the availability of corroborating evidence, as described in section 

208(b)(1)(B), 240(c)(4)(B), or 241(b)(3)(C), unless the court finds 

that a reasonable trier of fact is compelled to conclude that such 

corroborating evidence is unavailable.''.

    (e) Clarification of Discretion.--Section 242(a)(2)(B) of the 

Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1252(a)(2)(B)) is amended--

            (1) by inserting ``or the Secretary of Homeland Security'' 

        after ``Attorney General'' each place such term appears; and

            (2) in the matter preceding clause (i), by inserting ``and 

        regardless of whether the judgment, decision, or action is made 

        in removal proceedings,'' after ``other provision of law,''.

    (f) Removal of Caps.--Section 209 of the Immigration and 

Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1159) is amended--

            (1) in subsection (a)(1)--

                    (A) by striking ``Service'' and inserting 

                ``Department of Homeland Security''; and

                    (B) by striking ``Attorney General'' each place 

                such term appears and inserting ``Secretary of Homeland 

                Security or the Attorney General'';

            (2) in subsection (b)--

                    (A) by striking ``Not more'' and all that follows 

                through ``asylum who--'' and inserting ``The Secretary 

                of Homeland Security or the Attorney General, in the 

                Secretary's or the Attorney General's discretion and 

                under such regulations as the Secretary or the Attorney 

                General may prescribe, may adjust to the status of an 

                alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence the 

                status of any alien granted asylum who--''; and

                    (B) in the matter following paragraph (5), by 

                striking ``Attorney General'' and inserting ``Secretary 

                of Homeland Security or the Attorney General''; and

            (3) in subsection (c), by striking ``Attorney General'' and 

        inserting ``Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney 

        General''.

    (g) Effective Dates.--

            (1) The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) of 

        subsection (a) shall take effect as if enacted on March 1, 

        2003.

            (2) The amendments made by subsections (a)(3), (b), and (c) 

        shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act and 

        shall apply to applications for asylum, withholding, or other 

        removal made on or after such date.

            (3) The amendment made by subsection (d) shall take effect 

        on the date of the enactment of this Act and shall apply to all 

        cases in which the final administrative removal order is or was 

        issued before, on, or after such date.

            (4) The amendments made by subsection (e) shall take effect 

        on the date of the enactment of this Act and shall apply to all 

        cases pending before any court on or after such date.

            (5) The amendments made by subsection (f) shall take effect 

        on the date of the enactment of this Act.

    (h) Repeal.--Section 5403 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism 

Prevention Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-458) is repealed.

 

SEC. 102. WAIVER OF LAWS NECESSARY FOR IMPROVEMENT OF BARRIERS AT 

              BORDERS.

 

    Section 102(c) of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant 

Responsibility Act of 1996 (8 U.S.C. 1103 note) is amended to read as 

follows:

    ``(c) Waiver.--

            ``(1) In general.--Notwithstanding any other provision of 

        law, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall have the 

        authority to waive, and shall waive, all laws such Secretary, 

        in such Secretary's sole discretion, determines necessary to 

        ensure expeditious construction of the barriers and roads under 

        this section.

            ``(2) No judicial review.--Notwithstanding any other 

        provision of law (statutory or nonstatutory), no court, 

        administrative agency, or other entity shall have 

        jurisdiction--

                    ``(A) to hear any cause or claim arising from any 

                action undertaken, or any decision made, by the 

                Secretary of Homeland Security pursuant to paragraph 

                (1); or

                    ``(B) to order compensatory, declaratory, 

                injunctive, equitable, or any other relief for damage 

                alleged to arise from any such action or decision.''.

 

SEC. 103. INADMISSIBILITY DUE TO TERRORIST AND TERRORIST-RELATED 

              ACTIVITIES.

 

    (a) In General.--So much of section 212(a)(3)(B)(i) of the 

Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)(i)) as precedes 

the final sentence is amended to read as follows:

                            ``(i) In general.--Any alien who--

                                    ``(I) has engaged in a terrorist 

                                activity;

                                    ``(II) a consular officer, the 

                                Attorney General, or the Secretary of 

                                Homeland Security knows, or has 

                                reasonable ground to believe, is 

                                engaged in or is likely to engage after 

                                entry in any terrorist activity (as 

                                defined in clause (iv));

                                    ``(III) has, under circumstances 

                                indicating an intention to cause death 

                                or serious bodily harm, incited 

                                terrorist activity;

                                    ``(IV) is a representative (as 

                                defined in clause (v)) of--

                                            ``(aa) a terrorist 

                                        organization (as defined in 

                                        clause (vi)); or

                                            ``(bb) a political, social, 

                                        or other group that endorses or 

                                        espouses terrorist activity;

                                    ``(V) is a member of a terrorist 

                                organization described in subclause (I) 

                                or (II) of clause (vi);

                                    ``(VI) is a member of a terrorist 

                                organization described in clause 

                                (vi)(III), unless the alien can 

                                demonstrate by clear and convincing 

                                evidence that the alien did not know, 

                                and should not reasonably have known, 

                                that the organization was a terrorist 

                                organization;

                                    ``(VII) endorses or espouses 

                                terrorist activity or persuades others 

                                to endorse or espouse terrorist 

                                activity or support a terrorist 

                                organization;

                                    ``(VIII) has received military-type 

                                training (as defined in section 

                                2339D(c)(1) of title 18, United States 

                                Code) from or on behalf of any 

                                organization that, at the time the 

                                training was received, was a terrorist 

                                organization (as defined in clause 

                                (vi)); or

                                    ``(IX) is the spouse or child of an 

                                alien who is inadmissible under this 

                                subparagraph, if the activity causing 

                                the alien to be found inadmissible 

                                occurred within the last 5 years,

                        is inadmissible.''.

    (b) Engage in Terrorist Activity Defined.--Section 212(a)(3)(B)(iv) 

of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)(iv)) is 

amended to read as follows:

                            ``(iv) Engage in terrorist activity 

                        defined.--As used in this Act, the term `engage 

                        in terrorist activity' means, in an individual 

                        capacity or as a member of an organization--

                                    ``(I) to commit or to incite to 

                                commit, under circumstances indicating 

                                an intention to cause death or serious 

                                bodily injury, a terrorist activity;

                                    ``(II) to prepare or plan a 

                                terrorist activity;

                                    ``(III) to gather information on 

                                potential targets for terrorist 

                                activity;

                                    ``(IV) to solicit funds or other 

                                things of value for--

                                            ``(aa) a terrorist 

                                        activity;

                                            ``(bb) a terrorist 

                                        organization described in 

                                        clause (vi)(I) or (vi)(II); or

                                            ``(cc) a terrorist 

                                        organization described in 

                                        clause (vi)(III), unless the 

                                        solicitor can demonstrate by 

                                        clear and convincing evidence 

                                        that he did not know, and 

                                        should not reasonably have 

                                        known, that the organization 

                                        was a terrorist organization;

                                    ``(V) to solicit any individual--

                                            ``(aa) to engage in conduct 

                                        otherwise described in this 

                                        subsection;

                                            ``(bb) for membership in a 

                                        terrorist organization 

                                        described in clause (vi)(I) or 

                                        (vi)(II); or

                                            ``(cc) for membership in a 

                                        terrorist organization 

                                        described in clause (vi)(III) 

                                        unless the solicitor can 

                                        demonstrate by clear and 

                                        convincing evidence that he did 

                                        not know, and should not 

                                        reasonably have known, that the 

                                        organization was a terrorist 

                                        organization; or

                                    ``(VI) to commit an act that the 

                                actor knows, or reasonably should know, 

                                affords material support, including a 

                                safe house, transportation, 

                                communications, funds, transfer of 

                                funds or other material financial 

                                benefit, false documentation or 

                                identification, weapons (including 

                                chemical, biological, or radiological 

                                weapons), explosives, or training--

                                            ``(aa) for the commission 

                                        of a terrorist activity;

                                            ``(bb) to any individual 

                                        who the actor knows, or 

                                        reasonably should know, has 

                                        committed or plans to commit a 

                                        terrorist activity;

                                            ``(cc) to a terrorist 

                                        organization described in 

                                        subclause (I) or (II) of clause 

                                        (vi) or to any member of such 

                                        an organization; or

                                            ``(dd) to a terrorist 

                                        organization described in 

                                        clause (vi)(III), or to any 

                                        member of such an organization, 

                                        unless the actor can 

                                        demonstrate by clear and 

                                        convincing evidence that the 

                                        actor did not know, and should 

                                        not reasonably have known, that 

                                        the organization was a 

                                        terrorist organization.

                        This clause shall not apply to any material 

                        support the alien afforded to an organization 

                        or individual that has committed terrorist 

                        activity, if the Secretary of State, after 

                        consultation with the Attorney General and the 

                        Secretary of Homeland Security, or the Attorney 

                        General, after consultation with the Secretary 

                        of State and the Secretary of Homeland 

                        Security, concludes in his sole unreviewable 

                        discretion, that this clause should not 

                        apply.''.

    (c) Terrorist Organization Defined.--Section 212(a)(3)(B)(vi) of 

the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)(vi)) is 

amended to read as follows:

                            ``(vi) Terrorist organization defined.--As 

                        used in this section, the term `terrorist 

                        organization' means an organization--

                                    ``(I) designated under section 219;

                                    ``(II) otherwise designated, upon 

                                publication in the Federal Register, by 

                                the Secretary of State in consultation 

                                with or upon the request of the 

                                Attorney General or the Secretary of 

                                Homeland Security, as a terrorist 

                                organization, after finding that the 

                                organization engages in the activities 

                                described in subclauses (I) through 

                                (VI) of clause (iv); or

                                    ``(III) that is a group of two or 

                                more individuals, whether organized or 

                                not, which engages in, or has a 

                                subgroup which engages in, the 

                                activities described in subclauses (I) 

                                through (VI) of clause (iv).''.

    (d) Effective Date.--The amendments made by this section shall take 

effect on the date of the enactment of this Act, and these amendments, 

and section 212(a)(3)(B) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 

U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)), as amended by this section, shall apply to--

            (1) removal proceedings instituted before, on, or after the 

        date of the enactment of this Act; and

            (2) acts and conditions constituting a ground for 

        inadmissibility, excludability, deportation, or removal 

        occurring or existing before, on, or after such date.

SEC. 104. REMOVAL OF TERRORISTS.

 

    (a) In General.--

            (1) In general.--Section 237(a)(4)(B) of the Immigration 

        and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1227(a)(4)(B)) is amended to read 

        as follows:

                    ``(B) Terrorist activities.--Any alien who is 

                described in subparagraph (B) or (F) of section 

                212(a)(3) is deportable.''.

            (2) Effective date.--The amendment made by paragraph (1) 

        shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act, and 

        the amendment, and section 237(a)(4)(B) of the Immigration and 

        Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1227(a)(4)(B)), as amended by such 

        paragraph, shall apply to--

                    (A) removal proceedings instituted before, on, or 

                after the date of the enactment of this Act; and

                    (B) acts and conditions constituting a ground for 

                inadmissibility, excludability, deportation, or removal 

                occurring or existing before, on, or after such date.

    (b) Repeal.--Effective as of the date of the enactment of the 

Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (Public Law 

108-458), section 5402 of such Act is repealed, and the Immigration and 

Nationality Act shall be applied as if such section had not been 

enacted.

 

SEC. 105. JUDICIAL REVIEW OF ORDERS OF REMOVAL.

 

    (a) In General.--Section 242 of the Immigration and Nationality Act 

(8 U.S.C. 1252) is amended--

            (1) in subsection (a)--

                    (A) in paragraph (2)--

                            (i) in subparagraph (A), by inserting 

                        ``(statutory or nonstatutory), including 

                        section 2241 of title 28, United States Code, 

                        or any other habeas corpus provision, and 

                        sections 1361 and 1651 of such title'' after 

                        ``Notwithstanding any other provision of law'';

                            (ii) in each of subparagraphs (B) and (C), 

                        by inserting ``(statutory or nonstatutory), 

                        including section 2241 of title 28, United 

                        States Code, or any other habeas corpus 

                        provision, and sections 1361 and 1651 of such 

                        title, and except as provided in subparagraph 

                        (D)'' after ``Notwithstanding any other 

                        provision of law''; and

                            (iii) by adding at the end the following:

                    ``(D) Judicial review of certain legal claims.--

                Nothing in subparagraph (B) or (C), or in any other 

                provision of this Act which limits or eliminates 

                judicial review, shall be construed as precluding 

                review of constitutional claims or pure questions of 

                law raised upon a petition for review filed with an 

                appropriate court of appeals in accordance with this 

                section.''; and

                    (B) by adding at the end the following:

            ``(4) Claims under the united nations convention.--

        Notwithstanding any other provision of law (statutory or 

        nonstatutory), including section 2241 of title 28, United 

        States Code, or any other habeas corpus provision, and sections 

        1361 and 1651 of such title, a petition for review filed with 

        an appropriate court of appeals in accordance with this section 

        shall be the sole and exclusive means for judicial review of 

        any cause or claim under the United Nations Convention Against 

        Torture and Other Forms of Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading 

        Treatment or Punishment, except as provided in subsection (e).

            ``(5) Exclusive means of review.--Notwithstanding any other 

        provision of law (statutory or nonstatutory), including section 

        2241 of title 28, United States Code, or any other habeas 

        corpus provision, and sections 1361 and 1651 of such title, a 

        petition for review filed with an appropriate court of appeals 

        in accordance with this section shall be the sole and exclusive 

        means for judicial review of an order of removal entered or 

        issued under any provision of this Act, except as provided in 

        subsection (e). For purposes of this Act, in every provision 

        that limits or eliminates judicial review or jurisdiction to 

        review, the terms `judicial review' and `jurisdiction to 

        review' include habeas corpus review pursuant to section 2241 

        of title 28, United States Code, or any other habeas corpus 

        provision, sections 1361 and 1651 of such title, and review 

        pursuant to any other provision of law (statutory or 

        nonstatutory).'';

            (2) in subsection (b)--

                    (A) in paragraph (3)(B), by inserting ``pursuant to 

                subsection (f)'' after ``unless''; and

                    (B) in paragraph (9), by adding at the end the 

                following: ``Except as otherwise provided in this 

                section, no court shall have jurisdiction, by habeas 

                corpus under section 2241 of title 28, United States 

                Code, or any other habeas corpus provision, by section 

                1361 or 1651 of such title, or by any other provision 

                of law (statutory or nonstatutory), to review such an 

                order or such questions of law or fact.''; and

            (3) in subsection (g), by inserting ``(statutory or 

        nonstatutory), including section 2241 of title 28, United 

        States Code, or any other habeas corpus provision, and sections 

        1361 and 1651 of such title'' after ``notwithstanding any other 

        provision of law''.

    (b) Effective Date.--The amendments made by subsection (a) shall 

take effect upon the date of the enactment of this Act and shall apply 

to cases in which the final administrative order of removal, 

deportation, or exclusion was issued before, on, or after the date of 

the enactment of this Act.

    (c) Transfer of Cases.--If an alien's case, brought under section 

2241 of title 28, United States Code, and challenging a final 

administrative order of removal, deportation, or exclusion, is pending 

in a district court on the date of the enactment of this Act, then the 

district court shall transfer the case (or the part of the case that 

challenges the order of removal, deportation, or exclusion) to the 

court of appeals for the circuit in which a petition for review could 

have been properly filed under section 242(b)(2) of the Immigration and 

Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1252), as amended by this section, or under 

section 309(c)(4)(D) of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant 

Responsibility Act of 1996 (8 U.S.C. 1101 note). The court of appeals 

shall treat the transferred case as if it had been filed pursuant to a 

petition for review under such section 242, except that subsection 

(b)(1) of such section shall not apply.

    (d) Transitional Rule Cases.--A petition for review filed under 

former section 106(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (as in 

effect before its repeal by section 306(b) of the Illegal Immigration 

Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (8 U.S.C. 1252 note)) 

shall be treated as if it had been filed as a petition for review under 

section 242 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1252), as 

amended by this section. Notwithstanding any other provision of law 

(statutory or nonstatutory), including section 2241 of title 28, United 

States Code, or any other habeas corpus provision, and sections 1361 

and 1651 of such title, such petition for review shall be the sole and 

exclusive means for judicial review of an order of deportation or 

exclusion.

 

SEC. 106. DELIVERY BONDS.

 

    (a) Definitions.--For purposes of this section:

            (1) Delivery bond.--The term ``delivery bond'' means a 

        written suretyship undertaking for the surrender of an 

        individual against whom the Department of Homeland Security has 

        issued an order to show cause or a notice to appear, the 

        performance of which is guaranteed by an acceptable surety on 

        Federal bonds.

            (2) Principal.--The term ``principal'' means an individual 

        who is the subject of a bond.

            (3) Suretyship undertaking.--The term ``suretyship 

        undertaking'' means a written agreement, executed by a bonding 

        agent on behalf of a surety, which binds all parties to its 

        certain terms and conditions and which provides obligations for 

        the principal and the surety while under the bond and penalties 

        for forfeiture to ensure the obligations of the principal and 

        the surety under the agreement.

            (4) Bonding agent.--The term ``bonding agent'' means any 

        individual properly licensed, approved, and appointed by power 

        of attorney to execute or countersign surety bonds in 

        connection with any matter governed by the Immigration and 

        Nationality Act as amended (8 U.S.C. 1101, et seq.), and who 

        receives a premium for executing or countersigning such surety 

        bonds.

            (5) Surety.--The term ``surety'' means an entity, as 

        defined by, and that is in compliance with, sections 9304 

        through 9308 of title 31, United States Code, that agrees--

                    (A) to guarantee the performance, where 

                appropriate, of the principal under a bond;

                    (B) to perform the bond as required; and

                    (C) to pay the face amount of the bond as a penalty 

                for failure to perform.

    (b) Validity, Agent not Co-Obligor, Expiration, Renewal, and 

Cancellation of Bonds.--

            (1) Validity.--Delivery bond undertakings are valid if such 

        bonds--

                    (A) state the full, correct, and proper name of the 

                alien principal;

                    (B) state the amount of the bond;

                    (C) are guaranteed by a surety and countersigned by 

                an agent who is properly appointed;

                    (D) bond documents are properly executed; and

                    (E) relevant bond documents are properly filed with 

                the Secretary of Homeland Security.

            (2) Bonding agent not co-obligor, party, or guarantor in 

        individual capacity, and no refusal if acceptable surety.--

        Section 9304(b) of title 31, United States Code, is amended by 

        adding at the end the following: ``Notwithstanding any other 

        provision of law, no bonding agent of a corporate surety shall 

        be required to execute bonds as a co-obligor, party, or 

        guarantor in an individual capacity on bonds provided by the 

        corporate surety, nor shall a corporate surety bond be refused 

        if the corporate surety appears on the current Treasury 

        Department Circular 570 as a company holding a certificate of 

        authority as an acceptable surety on Federal bonds and attached 

        to the bond is a currently valid instrument showing the 

        authority of the bonding agent of the surety company to execute 

        the bond.''.

            (3) Expiration.--A delivery bond undertaking shall expire 

        at the earliest of--

                    (A) 1 year from the date of issue;

                    (B) at the cancellation of the bond or surrender of 

                the principal; or

                    (C) immediately upon nonpayment of the renewal 

                premium.

            (4) Renewal.--Delivery bonds may be renewed annually, with 

        payment of proper premium to the surety, if there has been no 

        breach of conditions, default, claim, or forfeiture of the 

        bond. Notwithstanding any renewal, when the alien is 

        surrendered to the Secretary of Homeland Security for removal, 

        the Secretary shall cause the bond to be canceled.

            (5) Cancellation.--Delivery bonds shall be canceled and the 

        surety exonerated--

                    (A) for nonrenewal after the alien has been 

                surrendered to the Department of Homeland Security for 

                removal;

                    (B) if the surety or bonding agent provides 

                reasonable evidence that there was misrepresentation or 

                fraud in the application for the bond;

                    (C) upon the death or incarceration of the 

                principal, or the inability of the surety to produce 

                the principal for medical reasons;

                    (D) if the principal is detained by any law 

                enforcement agency of any State, county, city, or any 

                politial subdivision thereof;

                    (E) if it can be established that the alien 

                departed the United States of America for any reason 

                without permission of the Secretary of Homeland 

                Security, the surety, or the bonding agent;

                    (F) if the foreign state of which the principal is 

                a national is designated pursuant to section 244 of the 

                Act (8 U.S.C. 1254a) after the bond is posted; or

                    (G) if the principal is surrendered to the 

                Department of Homeland Security, removal by the surety 

                or the bonding agent.

            (6) Surrender of principal; forfeiture of bond premium.--

                    (A) Surrender.--At any time, before a breach of any 

                of the bond conditions, if in the opinion of the surety 

                or bonding agent, the principal becomes a flight risk, 

                the principal may be surrendered to the Department of 

                Homeland Security for removal.

                    (B) Forfeiture of bond premium.--A principal may be 

                surrendered without the return of any bond premium if 

                the principal--

                            (i) changes address without notifying the 

                        surety, the bonding agent, and the Secretary of 

                        Homeland Security in writing prior to such 

                        change;

                            (ii) hides or is concealed from a surety, a 

                        bonding agent, or the Secretary;

                            (iii) fails to report to the Secretary as 

                        required at least annually; or

                            (iv) violates the contract with the bonding 

                        agent or surety, commits any act that may lead 

                        to a breach of the bond, or otherwise violates 

                        any other obligation or condition of the bond 

                        established by the Secretary.

            (7) Certified copy of bond and arrest warrant to accompany 

        surrender.--

                    (A) In general.--A bonding agent or surety desiring 

                to surrender the principal--

                            (i) shall have the right to petition the 

                        Secretary of Homeland Security or any Federal 

                        court, without having to pay any fees or court 

                        costs, for an arrest warrant for the arrest of 

                        the principal;

                            (ii) shall forthwith be provided 2 

                        certified copies each of the arrest warrant and 

                        the bond undertaking, without having to pay any 

                        fees or courts costs; and

                            (iii) shall have the right to pursue, 

                        apprehend, detain, and surrender the principal, 

                        together with certified copies of the arrest 

                        warrant and the bond undertaking, to any 

                        Department of Homeland Security detention 

                        official or Department detention facility or 

                        any detention facility authorized to hold 

                        Federal detainees.

                    (B) Effects of delivery.--Upon surrender of a 

                principal under subparagraph (A)(iii)--

                            (i) the official to whom the principal is 

                        surrendered shall detain the principal in 

                        custody and issue a written certificate of 

                        surrender; and

                            (ii) the Secretary of Homeland Security 

                        shall immediately exonerate the surety from any 

                        further liability on the bond.

            (8) Form of bond.--Delivery bonds shall in all cases state 

        the following and be secured by a corporate surety that is 

        certified as an acceptable surety on Federal bonds and whose 

        name appears on the current Treasury Department Circular 570:

                    ``(A) Breach of bond; procedure, forfeiture, 

                notice.--

                            ``(i) If a principal violates any 

                        conditions of the delivery bond, or the 

                        principal is or becomes subject to a final 

                        administrative order of deportation or removal, 

                        the Secretary of Homeland Security shall--

                                    ``(I) immediately issue a warrant 

                                for the principal's arrest and enter 

                                that arrest warrant into the National 

                                Crime Information Center (NCIC) 

                                computerized information database;

                                    ``(II) order the bonding agent and 

                                surety to take the principal into 

                                custody and surrender the principal to 

                                any one of 10 designated Department of 

                                Homeland Security `turn-in' centers 

                                located nationwide in the areas of 

                                greatest need, at any time of day 

                                during 15 months after mailing the 

                                arrest warrant and the order to the 

                                bonding agent and the surety as 

                                required by subclause (III), and 

                                immediately enter that order into the 

                                National Crime Information Center 

                                (NCIC) computerized information 

                                database; and

                                    ``(III) mail 2 certified copies 

                                each of the arrest warrant issued 

                                pursuant to subclause (I) and 2 

                                certified copies each of the order 

                                issued pursuant to subclause (II) to 

                                only the bonding agent and surety via 

                                certified mail return receipt to their 

                                last known addresses.

                            ``(ii) Bonding agents and sureties shall 

                        immediately notify the Secretary of Homeland 

                        Security of their changes of address and/or 

                        telephone numbers.

                            ``(iii) The Secretary of Homeland Security 

                        shall establish, disseminate to bonding agents 

                        and sureties, and maintain on a current basis a 

                        secure nationwide toll-free list of telephone 

                        numbers of Department of Homeland Security 

                        officials, including the names of such 

                        officials, that bonding agents, sureties, and 

                        their employees may immediately contact at any 

                        time to discuss and resolve any issue regarding 

                        any principal or bond, to be known as `Points 

                        of Contact'.

                            ``(iv) A bonding agent or surety shall have 

                        full and complete access, free of charge, to 

                        any and all information, electronic or 

                        otherwise, in the care, custody, and control of 

                        the United States Government or any State or 

                        local government or any subsidiary or police 

                        agency thereof regarding the principal that may 

                        be helpful in complying with section 105 of the 

                        REAL ID Act of 2005 that the Secretary of 

                        Homeland Security, by regulations subject to 

                        approval by Congress, determines may be helpful 

                        in locating or surrendering the principal. 

                        Beyond the principal, a bonding agent or surety 

                        shall not be required to disclose any 

                        information, including but not limited to the 

                        arrest warrant and order, received from any 

                        governmental source, any person, firm, 

                        corporation, or other entity.

                            ``(v) If the principal is later arrested, 

                        detained, or otherwise located outside the 

                        United States and the outlying possessions of 

                        the United States (as defined in section 101(a) 

                        of the Immigration and Nationality Act), the 

                        Secretary of Homeland Security shall--

                                    ``(I) immediately order that the 

                                surety is completely exonerated, and 

                                the bond canceled; and

                                    ``(II) if the Secretary of Homeland 

                                Security has issued an order under 

                                clause (i), the surety may request, by 

                                written, properly filed motion, 

                                reinstatement of the bond. This 

                                subclause may not be construed to 

                                prevent the Secretary of Homeland 

                                Security from revoking or resetting a 

                                bond at a higher amount.

                            ``(vi) The bonding agent or surety must--

                                    ``(I) during the 15 months after 

                                the date the arrest warrant and order 

                                were mailed pursuant to clause (i)(III) 

                                surrender the principal one time; or

                                    ``(II)(aa) provide reasonable 

                                evidence that producing the principal 

                                was prevented--

                                            ``(aaa) by the principal's 

                                        illness or death;

                                            ``(bbb) because the 

                                        principal is detained in 

                                        custody in any city, State, 

                                        country, or any political 

                                        subdivision thereof;

                                            ``(ccc) because the 

                                        principal has left the United 

                                        States or its outlying 

                                        possessions (as defined in 

                                        section 101(a) of the 

                                        Immigration and Nationality Act 

                                        (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)); or

                                            ``(ddd) because required 

                                        notice was not given to the 

                                        bonding agent or surety; and

                                    ``(bb) establish by affidavit that 

                                the inability to produce the principal 

                                was not with the consent or connivance 

                                of the bonding agent or surety.

                            ``(vii) If compliance occurs more than 15 

                        months but no more than 18 months after the 

                        mailing of the arrest warrant and order to the 

                        bonding agent and the surety required under 

                        clause (i)(III), an amount equal to 25 percent 

                        of the face amount of the bond shall be 

                        assessed as a penalty against the surety.

                            ``(viii) If compliance occurs more than 18 

                        months but no more than 21 months after the 

                        mailing of the arrest warrant and order to the 

                        bonding agent and the surety required under 

                        clause (i)(III), an amount equal to 50 percent 

                        of the face amount of the bond shall be 

                        assessed as a penalty against the surety.

                            ``(ix) If compliance occurs more than 21 

                        months but no more than 24 months after the 

                        mailing of the arrest warrant and order to the 

                        bonding agent and the surety required under 

                        clause (i)(III), an amount equal to 75 percent 

                        of the face amount of the bond shall be 

                        assessed as a penalty against the surety.

                            ``(x) If compliance occurs 24 months or 

                        more after the mailing of the arrest warrant 

                        and order to the bonding agent and the surety 

                        required under clause (i)(III), an amount equal 

                        to 100 percent of the face amount of the bond 

                        shall be assessed as a penalty against the 

                        surety.

                            ``(xi) If any surety surrenders any 

                        principal to the Secretary of Homeland Security 

                        at any time and place after the period for 

                        compliance has passed, the Secretary of 

                        Homeland Security shall cause to be issued to 

                        that surety an amount equal to 50 percent of 

                        the face amount of the bond: Provided, however, 

                        That if that surety owes any penalties on bonds 

                        to the United States, the amount that surety 

                        would otherwise receive shall be offset by and 

                        applied as a credit against the amount of 

                        penalties on bonds it owes the United States, 

                        and then that surety shall receive the 

                        remainder of the amount to which it is entitled 

                        under this subparagraph, if any.

                            ``(xii) All penalties assessed against a 

                        surety on a bond, if any, shall be paid by the 

                        surety no more than 27 months after the mailing 

                        of the arrest warrant and order to the bonding 

                        agent and the surety required under clause 

                        (i)(III).

`(B) The Secretary of Homeland Security may waive 

                penalties or extend the period for payment or both, 

                if--

                            ``(i) a written request is filed with the 

                        Secretary of Homeland Security; and

                            ``(ii) the bonding agent or surety provides 

                        an affidavit that diligent efforts were made to 

                        effect compliance of the principal.

                    ``(C) Compliance; exoneration; limitation of 

                liability.--

                            ``(i) Compliance.--A bonding agent or 

                        surety shall have the absolute right to locate, 

                        apprehend, arrest, detain, and surrender any 

                        principal, wherever he or she may be found, who 

                        violates any of the terms and conditions of his 

                        or her bond.

                            ``(ii) Exoneration.--Upon satisfying any of 

                        the requirements of the bond, the surety shall 

                        be completely exonerated.

                            ``(iii) Limitation of liability.--

                        Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the 

                        total liability on any surety undertaking shall 

                        not exceed the face amount of the bond.''.

    (c) Effective Date.--The provisions of this section shall take 

effect on the date of the enactment of this Act and shall apply to 

bonds and surety undertakings executed before, on, or after the date of 

the enactment of this Act.

 

SEC. 107. RELEASE OF ALIENS IN REMOVAL PROCEEDINGS.

 

    (a) In General.--Section 236(a)(2) of the Immigration and 

Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1226(a)(2)) is amended to read as follows:

            ``(2) subject to such reasonable regulations as the 

        Secretary of Homeland Security may prescribe, shall permit 

        agents, servants, and employees of corporate sureties to visit 

        in person with individuals detained by the Secretary of and, 

        subject to section 241(a)(8), may release the alien on a 

        delivery bond of at least $10,000, with security approved by 

        the Secretary, and containing conditions and procedures 

        prescribed by section 105 of the REAL ID Act of 2005 and by the 

        Secretary, but the Secretary shall not release the alien on or 

        to his own recognizance unless an order of an immigration judge 

        expressly finds and states in a signed order to release the 

        alien to his own recognizance that the alien is not a flight 

        risk and is not a threat to the United States''.

    (b) Repeal.--Section 286(r) of the Immigration and Nationality Act 

(8 U.S.C. 1356(r)) is repealed.

    (c) Effective Date.--The amendment made by subsection (a) shall 

take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act.

 

SEC. 108. DETENTION OF ALIENS DELIVERED BY BONDSMEN.

 

    (a) In General.--Section 241(a) of the Immigration and Nationality 

Act (8 U.S.C. 1231(a)) is amended by adding at the end the following:

            ``(8) Effect of production of alien by bondsman.--

        Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of 

        Homeland Security shall take into custody any alien subject to 

        a final order of removal, and cancel any bond previously posted 

        for the alien, if the alien is produced within the prescribed 

        time limit by the obligor on the bond whether or not the 

        Department of Homeland Security accepts custody of the alien. 

        The obligor on the bond shall be deemed to have substantially 

        performed all conditions imposed by the terms of the bond, and 

        shall be released from liability on the bond, if the alien is 

        produced within such time limit.''.

    (b) Effective Date.--The amendment made by subsection (a) shall 

take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act and shall apply to 

all immigration bonds posted before, on, or after such date.

 

TITLE II--IMPROVED SECURITY FOR IDENTIFICATION DOCUMENTS

 

SEC. 201. DEFINITIONS.

 

    In this title, the following definitions apply:

            (1) Driver's license.--The term ``driver's license'' means 

        a motor vehicle operator's license, as defined in section 30301 

        of title 49, United States Code.

            (2) Identification card.--The term ``identification card'' 

        means a personal identification card, as defined in section 

        1028(d) of title 18, United States Code, issued by a State.

            (3) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary 

        of Homeland Security.

            (4) State.--The term ``State'' means a State of the United 

        States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin 

        Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, 

        the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and any other 

        territory or possession of the United States.

(5) Social Security card.--The term “social security card”

       means the identification document issued by the United States

       Department of Health And Human Services for all United

       States citizens, permanent lawful residents and temporary

       working non-residents, as defined in sections 301-1397mm

       of title 42, United States Code, issued by the Federal.

(6) Passport.--The term “passport” means the

      identification document issued by the United States 

      Department of State for all United States citizens,

      permanent lawful residents and temporary working

      non-residents, as defined in sections 211a-229 of title 22,

      United States Code, issued by the Federal. 

 

SEC. 202. MINIMUM DOCUMENT REQUIREMENTS AND ISSUANCE STANDARDS FOR 

              FEDERAL RECOGNITION.

 

    (a) Minimum Standards for Federal Use.--

            (1) In general.--Beginning 3 years after the date of the 

        enactment of this Act, a Federal agency may not accept, for any 

        official purpose, a driver's license or identification card 

        issued by a State to any person unless the State is meeting the 

        requirements of this section.

            (2) State certifications.--The Secretary shall determine 

        whether a State is meeting the requirements of this section 

        based on certifications made by the State to the Secretary of 

        Transportation. Such certifications shall be made at such times 

        and in such manner as the Secretary of Transportation, in 

        consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, may 

        prescribe by regulation.

    (b) Minimum Document Requirements.--To meet the requirements of 

this section, a State shall include, at a minimum, the following 

information and features on each driver's license and identification 

card issued to a person by the State:

            (1) The person's full legal name.

            (2) The person's date of birth.

            (3) The person's gender.

            (4) The person's driver's license or identification card 

        number.

            (5) A digital photograph of the person.

            (6) The person's address of principle residence.

            (7) The person's signature.

            (8) Physical security features designed to prevent 

        tampering, counterfeiting, or duplication of the document for 

        fraudulent purposes.

            (9) A common machine-readable technology, with defined 

        minimum data elements.

    (c) Minimum Issuance Standards.--

            (1) In general.--To meet the requirements of this section, 

        a State shall require, at a minimum, presentation and 

        verification of the following information before issuing a 

        driver's license or identification card to a person:

                    (A) A photo identity document, except that a non-

                photo identity document is acceptable if it includes 

                both the person's full legal name and date of birth.

                    (B) Documentation showing the person's date of 

                birth.

                    (C) Proof of the person's social security account 

                number or verification that the person is not eligible 

                for a social security account number.

                    (D) Documentation showing the person's name and 

                address of principal residence.

            (2) Special requirements.--

                    (A) In general.--To meet the requirements of this 

                section, a State shall comply with the minimum 

                standards of this paragraph.

                    (B) Evidence of lawful status.--A State shall 

                require, before issuing a driver's license or 

                identification card to a person, valid documentary 

                evidence that the person--

                            (i) is a citizen of the United States;

                            (ii) is an alien lawfully admitted for 

                        permanent or temporary residence in the United 

                        States;

                            (iii) has conditional permanent resident 

                        status in the United States;

                            (iv) has an approved application for asylum 

                        in the United States or has entered into the 

                        United States in refugee status;

                            (v) has a valid, unexpired nonimmigrant 

                        visa or nonimmigrant visa status for entry into 

                        the United States;

                            (vi) has a pending application for asylum 

                        in the United States;

                            (vii) has a pending or approved application 

                        for temporary protected status in the United 

                        States;

                            (viii) has approved deferred action status; 

                        or

                            (ix) has a pending application for 

                        adjustment of status to that of an alien 

                        lawfully admitted for permanent residence in 

                        the United States or conditional permanent 

                        resident status in the United States.

                    (C) Temporary drivers' licenses and identification 

                cards.--

                            (i) In general.--If a person presents 

                        evidence under any of clauses (v) through (ix) 

                        of subparagraph (B), the State may only issue a 

                        temporary driver's license or temporary 

                        identification card to the person.

                            (ii) Expiration date.--A temporary driver's 

                        license or temporary identification card issued 

                       pursuant to this subparagraph shall be valid 

                        only during the period of time of the 

                        applicant's authorized stay in the United 

                        States or, if there is no definite end to the 

                        period of authorized stay, a period of one 

                        year.

                            (iii) Display of expiration date.--A 

                        temporary driver's license or temporary 

                        identification card issued pursuant to this 

                        subparagraph shall clearly indicate that it is 

                        temporary and shall state the date on which it 

                        expires.

                            (iv) Renewal.--A temporary driver's license 

                        or temporary identification card issued 

                        pursuant to this subparagraph may be renewed 

                        only upon presentation of valid documentary 

                        evidence that the status by which the applicant 

                        qualified for the temporary driver's license or 

                        temporary identification card has been extended 

                        by the Secretary of Homeland Security.

            (3) Verification of documents.--To meet the requirements of 

        this section, a State shall implement the following procedures:

                    (A) Before issuing a driver's license or 

                identification card to a person, the State shall 

                verify, with the issuing agency, the issuance, 

                validity, and completeness of each document required to 

                be presented by the person under paragraph (1) or (2).

                    (B) The State shall not accept any foreign 

                document, other than an official passport, to satisfy a 

                requirement of paragraph (1) or (2).

                    (C) Not later than September 11, 2005, the State 

                shall enter into a memorandum of understanding with the 

                Secretary of Homeland Security to routinely utilize the 

                automated system known as Systematic Alien Verification 

                for Entitlements, as provided for by section 404 of the 

                Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility 

                Act of 1996 (110 Stat. 3009-664), to verify the legal 

                presence status of a person, other than a United States 

                citizen, applying for a driver's license or 

                identification card.

    (d) Other Requirements.--To meet the requirements of this section, 

a State shall adopt the following practices in the issuance of drivers' 

licenses and identification cards:

            (1) Employ technology to capture digital images of identity 

        source documents so that the images can be retained in 

        electronic storage in a transferable format.

            (2) Retain paper copies of source documents for a minimum 

        of 7 years or images of source documents presented for a 

        minimum of 10 years.

            (3) Subject each person applying for a driver's license or 

        identification card to mandatory facial image capture.

            (4) Establish an effective procedure to confirm or verify a 

        renewing applicant's information.

            (5) Confirm with the Social Security Administration a 

        social security account number presented by a person using the 

        full social security account number. In the event that a social 

        security account number is already registered to or associated 

        with another person to which any State has issued a driver's 

        license or identification card, the State shall resolve the 

        discrepancy and take appropriate action.

            (6) Refuse to issue a driver's license or identification 

        card to a person holding a driver's license issued by another 

        State without confirmation that the person is terminating or 

        has terminated the driver's license.

            (7) Ensure the physical security of locations where 

        drivers' licenses and identification cards are produced and the 

        security of document materials and papers from which drivers' 

        licenses and identification cards are produced.

            (8) Subject all persons authorized to manufacture or 

        produce drivers' licenses and identification cards to 

        appropriate security clearance requirements.

            (9) Establish fraudulent document recognition training 

        programs for appropriate employees engaged in the issuance of 

        drivers' licenses and identification cards.

            (10) Limit the period of validity of all driver's licenses 

        and identification cards that are not temporary to a period 

        that does not exceed 8 years.

 

SEC. 203. LINKING OF DATABASES.

 

    (a) In General.--To be eligible to receive any grant or other type 

of financial assistance made available under this title, a State shall 

participate in the interstate compact regarding sharing of driver 

license data, known as the ``Driver License Agreement'', in order to 

provide electronic access by a State to information contained in the 

motor vehicle databases of all other States.

    (b) Requirements for Information.--A State motor vehicle database 

shall contain, at a minimum, the following information:

            (1) All data fields printed on drivers' licenses and 

        identification cards issued by the State.

            (2) Motor vehicle drivers' histories, including motor 

        vehicle violations, suspensions, and points on licenses.

 

SEC. 204. TRAFFICKING IN AUTHENTICATION FEATURES FOR USE IN FALSE 

              IDENTIFICATION DOCUMENTS.

 

    (a) Criminal Penalty.--Section 1028(a)(8) of title 18, United 

States Code, is amended by striking ``false authentication features'' 

and inserting ``false or actual authentication features''.

    (b) Use of False Driver's License at Airports.--

            (1) In general.--The Secretary shall enter, into the 

        appropriate aviation security screening database, appropriate 

        information regarding any person convicted of using a false 

        driver's license at an airport (as such term is defined in 

        section 40102 of title 49, United States Code).

            (2) False defined.--In this subsection, the term ``false'' 

        has the same meaning such term has under section 1028(d) of 

        title 18, United States Code.

 

SEC. 205. GRANTS TO STATES.

 

    (a) In General.--The Secretary may make grants to a State to assist 

the State in conforming to the minimum standards set forth in this 

title.

    (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 

appropriated to the Secretary for each of the fiscal years 2005 through 

2009 such sums as may be necessary to carry out this title.

 

SEC. 206. AUTHORITY.

 

    (a) Participation of Secretary of Transportation and States.--All 

authority to issue regulations, set standards, and issue grants under 

this title shall be carried out by the Secretary, in consultation with 

the Secretary of Transportation and the States.

    (b) Compliance With Standards.--All authority to certify compliance 

with standards under this title shall be carried out by the Secretary 

of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland 

Security and the States.

    (c) Extensions of Deadlines.--The Secretary may grant to a State an 

extension of time to meet the requirements of section 202(a)(1) if the 

State provides adequate justification for noncompliance.

 

SEC. 207. REPEAL.

 

    Section 7212 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention 

Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-458) is repealed.

 

SEC. 208. LIMITATION ON STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION.

 

    Nothing in this title shall be construed to affect the authorities 

or responsibilities of the Secretary of Transportation or the States 

under chapter 303 of title 49, United States Code.

 

SEC. 209. DIGITAL IDENTIFICATION DOCUMENTS.

 

  1. The federal government and state governments shall provide

those eligible for issuance of driver’s licenses, identification cards,

social security cards and passports the option to obtain digital copies

of their identification documents that can be added to a digital wallet.

  1. Hard copies of driver’s licenses, identification cards, social

security cards and passports are not required if the individual has

digital copies of the identification documents. 

      (c) Digital versions of all identification documents suffices to

prove identity and to prove citizenship/lawful status in the United 

States of America to any private entity and/or government official 

in the legislature, executive and/or judiciary, including state and

local government officials. 

     (d) All rights, privileges, immunities and benefits conferred to

holders of hard copies of American identification documents are

transferred to digital copies of American identification documents 

and all said rights, privileges, immunities and benefits are vested

in digital identification documents. 

 

TITLE III--BORDER INFRASTRUCTURE AND TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

 

SEC. 301. VULNERABILITY AND THREAT ASSESSMENT.

 

    (a) Study.--The Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Border and 

Transportation Security, in consultation with the Under Secretary of 

Homeland Security for Science and Technology and the Under Secretary of 

Homeland Security for Information Analysis and Infrastructure 

Protection, shall study the technology, equipment, and personnel needed 

to address security vulnerabilities within the United States for each 

field office of the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection that has 

responsibility for any portion of the United States borders with Canada 

and Mexico. The Under Secretary shall conduct follow-up studies at 

least once every 5 years.

    (b) Report to Congress.--The Under Secretary shall submit a report 

to Congress on the Under Secretary's findings and conclusions from each 

study conducted under subsection (a) together with legislative 

recommendations, as appropriate, for addressing any security 

vulnerabilities found by the study.

    (c) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 

appropriated to the Department of Homeland Security Directorate of 

Border and Transportation Security such sums as may be necessary for 

fiscal years 2006 through 2011 to carry out any such recommendations 

from the first study conducted under subsection (a).

 

SEC. 302. USE OF GROUND SURVEILLANCE TECHNOLOGIES FOR BORDER SECURITY.

 

    (a) Pilot Program.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 

enactment of this Act, the Under Secretary of Homeland Security for 

Science and Technology, in consultation with the Under Secretary of 

Homeland Security for Border and Transportation Security, the Under 

Secretary of Homeland Security for Information Analysis and 

Infrastructure Protection, and the Secretary of Defense, shall develop 

a pilot program to utilize, or increase the utilization of, ground 

surveillance technologies to enhance the border security of the United 

States. In developing the program, the Under Secretary shall--

            (1) consider various current and proposed ground 

        surveillance technologies that could be utilized to enhance the 

        border security of the United States;

            (2) assess the threats to the border security of the United 

        States that could be addressed by the utilization of such 

        technologies; and

            (3) assess the feasibility and advisability of utilizing 

        such technologies to address such threats, including an 

        assessment of the technologies considered best suited to 

        address such threats.

    (b) Additional Requirements.--

            (1) In general.--The pilot program shall include the 

        utilization of a variety of ground surveillance technologies in 

        a variety of topographies and areas (including both populated 

        and unpopulated areas) on both the northern and southern 

        borders of the United States in order to evaluate, for a range 

        of circumstances--

                    (A) the significance of previous experiences with 

                such technologies in homeland security or critical 

                infrastructure protection for the utilization of such 

                technologies for border security;

                    (B) the cost, utility, and effectiveness of such 

                technologies for border security; and

                    (C) liability, safety, and privacy concerns 

                relating to the utilization of such technologies for 

                border security.

            (2) Technologies.--The ground surveillance technologies 

        utilized in the pilot program shall include the following:

                    (A) Video camera technology.

                    (B) Sensor technology.

                    (C) Motion detection technology.

    (c) Implementation.--The Under Secretary of Homeland Security for 

Border and Transportation Security shall implement the pilot program 

developed under this section.

    (d) Report.--Not later than 1 year after implementing the pilot 

program under subsection (a), the Under Secretary shall submit a report 

on the program to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and 

Transportation, the House of Representatives Committee on Science, the 

House of Representatives Committee on Homeland Security, and the House 

of Representatives Committee on the Judiciary. The Under Secretary 

shall include in the report a description of the program together with 

such recommendations as the Under Secretary finds appropriate, 

including recommendations for terminating the program, making the 

program permanent, or enhancing the program.

 

SEC. 303. ENHANCEMENT OF COMMUNICATIONS INTEGRATION AND INFORMATION 

 

              SHARING ON BORDER SECURITY.

 

    (a) In General.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 

enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Homeland Security, acting 

through the Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Border and 

Transportation Security, in consultation with the Under Secretary of 

Homeland Security for Science and Technology, the Under Secretary of 

Homeland Security for Information Analysis and Infrastructure 

Protection, the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and 

Information, and other appropriate Federal, State, local, and tribal 

agencies, shall develop and implement a plan--

            (1) to improve the communications systems of the 

        departments and agencies of the Federal Government in order to 

        facilitate the integration of communications among the 

        departments and agencies of the Federal Government and State, 

        local government agencies, and Indian tribal agencies on 

        matters relating to border security; and

            (2) to enhance information sharing among the departments 

        and agencies of the Federal Government, State and local 

        government agencies, and Indian tribal agencies on such 

        matters.

    (b) Report.--Not later than 1 year after implementing the plan 

under subsection (a), the Secretary shall submit a copy of the plan and 

a report on the plan, including any recommendations the Secretary finds 

appropriate, to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and 

Transportation, the House of Representatives Committee on Science, the 

House of Representatives Committee on Homeland Security, and the House 

of Representatives Committee on the Judiciary.

 

SEC. 304. PURPOSE AND ENFORCEMENT OF THIS TITLE

 

This title shall be enforced by the federal government by granting states

that abide by this title benefits for the purpose of saving the Earth from climate

change, easy traveling between land borders, instantaneous identity verification, 

less interrogations  for proof of identity and less immigrants because we have an 

organized, well-regulated and well-ordered federal digital identity documents system 

making identification documents hard to falsify, easily obtainable and always with 

us in our digital phones and computers.  This will dissuade immigration because it 

will instill sweeping identity document requirements that are lacking at the state level. 

 

SEC. 305. VIOLATIONS OF THIS TITLE

 

Violations of this title will deprive states and their citizens of federal identification

documents protections conferred by the Constitution of the United States

of America, its statutes and treaties in not meeting the minimum federal 

identification requirements causing federal and/or state government officials to not 

be able to prove identities to a certainty and imposing onto individuals more burdensome

procedures in proving their identity in the United States of America. 

 

SEC. 306. RETAINER OF ALL RIGHTS, PRIVILEGES, IMMUNITIES AND BENEFITS

 

The drafters of this legislation retain and reserve all the rights, privileges, 

immunities and/or benefits available at law. No rights, privileges, immunities

and/or benefits not expressly conferred herein shall be vested to any party, 

neither actually nor constructively. 

 

SEC. 307. LEGISLATIVE IMMUNITY

 

Any case and/or controversy arising out of this legislation in any branch

of government is barred by legislative immunity pursuant to the Speech or 

Debate Clause of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

U.S. Const. art. I, § 6, c. 1 (2023). 

 

Sponsored & Introduced By Rep. Ian A. Medina (D-FL): 01/09/2023

 

Passes The U.S. House:


Passes The U.S. Senate:

 

Signed Into Law By President Joseph R. Biden: